“Guests of Napoleon” – some British Army prisoners at Givet in France, 1805-14
During the Napoleonic Wars, something between 20,000 to 25,000 British military and naval personnel were held as prisoners in France. Of these, approx 10,000 were sailors from the Royal and Merchant navies. There were also several hundred British civilians resident in France (all British subjects in France, between the age of eighteen and sixty) and elsewhere “detained” at various dates (détenus) – interned as “enemy aliens” after a Decreee of 1803. Many of these ended up in Verdun, which became the central parole ‘depot’ for English civilians accompanied by women and children, and servicemen vested with rank. Some “depots” held mainly naval captives (as at Givet, Sarrelouis, Longwy and Cambrai), others had larger numbers of army captives (like Briançon and Bitche), though all tended to have somewhat mixed populations varying from time to time. One might feel some sympathy for the 9 soldiers who were being held along with about 1,200 sailors at Arras at one time in 1812! Most, but certainly not all, “foreigners serving under the British Flag” (e.g. Germans) seem to have been sent to Mont Dauphin in the Alps.
British prisoners were held in the following dedicated prisons and fortresses mainly on the northern and eastern borders of France:
Arras, department of Pas-de-Calais
Auxonne, department of Côte-d’Or
Besançon, department of Doubs
Bitche, department of Moselle
Brest, department of Finistère
Briançon, department of Hautes-Alpes
Cambrai, department of Nord
Charlemont, department of Ardennes [fortress at Givet]
Dunkirk, department of Nord
Givet, department of Ardennes
Joux, department of Rhône
Longwy, department of Meurthe-et-Moselle
Maubeuge, department of Nord
Mont-Dauphin, department of Hautes-Alpes
Sarrelibre (Sarre Libre or Sarrelouis), now in Germany
Sedan, department of Ardennes
Valenciennes, department of Nord
Verdun, department of Meuse [officers’ and civilian camp]
Many coastal towns with fortresses, such as Brest, Dunkirk and Marseilles, also held small numbers of prisoners, as did any place with a big enough jail – e.g. Nimes, Aix-la-Chapelle, Versailles, Melun, St. Germain, Toulouse and various locations in Paris.
Many of the main camps listed above were chosen because they already had strong fortresses or defences; other smaller towns, those with a large enough local jail, were used to hold men when being marched from camp to camp or from place to place.
All prisoners were escorted to their appointed depots by gendarmes who were picked soldiers, and were of two classes, one a pied and one a cheval … Owing to the distance of most of the depots from the coast, the journey of the prisoners often occupied many days, and was accompanied by every species of hardship. Moreover, the gendarmes were nearly always severe, often brutal, in the exercise of their powers. They not infrequently handcuffed the prisoners, and compelled them to march under this degrading restraint, being themselves held responsible for the safe delivery at the depot of all entrusted to their charge …. The common prisoners were rigorously confined within the walls of fortresses and had real reason to complain of the wretched accommodation provided them in the shape of lodging.
Captain Jahleel Brenton, R.N. – a prisoner of war himself – wrote :
The manner in which prisoners were also marched from the most distant parts, such as Toulon and Bourdeaux and even in many instances from Genoa and the ports of the Adriatic, was highly reprehensible in the government of a civilized country … If a small detachment of prisoners, not exceeding eight or ten, were to be sent from Toulon for instance, to Givet in the Ardennes, they were put under escort of two mounted gens d’armes; were generally handcuffed in pairs, and sometimes in addition were made fast to each other by a rope and conducted to the nearest [garrison] brigade in the line of the destined march; and by this forwarded to the next, in the same manner. At whatever town or village they were to pass the night, they were generally locked up in the common prison; from whence they continued the route with the next brigade the following morning. Left solely to the gens d’armes, it may naturally be supposed that the treatment was not always the most humane; although as has been shewn … [that] there were many instances of real kindness and feeling evinced by these men. But it was too often the case that the prisoners being without shoes became so lame as to be incapable of marching; they were then for some time driven on at the point of the sabre; sometimes dragged along by being attached to the horse; and at length, when utterly incapable of proceeding, they were deposited in the next prison until able to march.
Officers were usually held separately, Verdun (the central hub of the French p.o.w. system) having the biggest officer camp, and they often enjoyed considerable liberty and freedoms on parole. Some camps, like Givet, held no officer prisoners.
Givet lies across the Meuse, south east of Charleroi and 200 km from the French coast. It was described by one prisoner in 1805:
The town of Givet is situated on the left bank of the River Meuse, in the Department of Ardennes, in French Netherlands. It is a walled town with a single rampart, and on the south side of the river is another town called Little Givet, reached by a bridge of sixteen boats, both towns being fortified and occupied by strong garrisons. Grand Givet is commanded by the fortress of Charlemont, in which there are barracks and hospitals and a small town with a church. The citadel and rampart walls are very strong. On the south side it is fortified by Nature, the cliffs being 300 yards perpendicular. The prison building is situated in a narrow pass between the rock of the fortress of Charlemont and the River Meuse, and the only space the prisoners have for exercise is a narrow yard between the building itself and the river, along the side of which is a high wall.
The P.o.W. population of approx. 1,500 at any one time (up to 2,500 at one point) was almost entirely made up of British sailors (about 1,000 – 1,200 British seamen at any one time), along with a few captured Austrians, Prussians and Spaniards and at least some army prisoners drawn from British, King’s German Legion and other associated units (like the Chasseurs Britanniques).
The fortress of Charlemont, which overlooks the town on the river’s left bank, was begun under Charles V in the mid-C16 but later developed by Vauban into a defence work of immense strength. It was initially used to hold prisoners but as numbers grew after 1805 most were imprisoned in a large range of barracks along the riverside below the fortress. The barrack buildings – which became the longest such complex in France – no longer exist, having been burned out during the German attack of 1914 and never rebuilt.
Givet, like many other camps (e.g. Briançon in the Alps), was rather remote and perhaps difficult of access – no doubt a deliberate consideration – and the march to it from the coast or even more so from distant theatres like Portugal or Spain was long and difficult. In addition to the physical difficulties of a long march (often taking weeks), prisoners en route were given only a small monetary allowance by their captors and had to rely on the sometimes inadequate generosity of French civilians as they passed through towns and villages in order to feed themselves or for accommodation, bedding etc. – though it has to be said that many record friendly treatment and kindness. They were often held in local jails, barns or fortresses on their way to their final camp and had no means of procuring food other than purchasing it door to door or from local people who came to sell them drink and cooked food at suitable prices. Generally, the English press was scathing in its reports of the treatment of the prisoners – accommodation, food, medical treatment etc. – both on the march (where many deaths were reported, especially of wounded men) and once incarcerated, certainly in the early days before 1809.
One naval prisoner en route to Givet recalled: We began our march [from the coast] towards Givet and Charlemont, in the province of Ardennes, on the first day of April 1804. I believe we were a fortnight in getting to our journey’s end, being lodged in filthy prisons at night and marched with a guard by day, travelling nearly 300 miles on a pound of brown bread and twopence-half-penny per day – when we could get it.
Initially, prisoners for Givet spent a brief but uncomfortable time in the fortress dungeons and store-rooms of Charlemont, the local fortress, but after processing were installed in the barracks below the cliffs, which, although crowded and confining, had at least been equipped with beds and firewood. One Givet prisoner wrote: The prison in which we were confined was a very large horse-barracks, divided into corridors or passages. Each corridor contained eight rooms, with accommodation in each room for sixteen persons. At night the doors were locked until the next morning, when we had liberty to go into a long, narrow yard close to the River Meuse. This yard, when we were mustered, which we always did three times a day, would scarcely contain us. It was described as a narrow strip of ground which in summer was a complete oven.
Another remembered that: After … examination [in Charlemont fortress] we were conducted to the prison gate and then to the prison yard, where we found about 930 British prisoners of war. The barrack-master conducted us to the eighth passage, in which passage were eight rooms, and in each room they put sixteen men, and served to each room a large kettle, a dish, ladle, and pitcher for the whole mess. We were paid tenpence per man … this was allowed us by English Lloyds, and our allowance from the French Government was as follows – viz., one pound of bread, half pound of beef, a small quantity of wood, a thimbleful of salt, a noggin of peas, and three farthings in money per man per day.
For much of the time, they were locked in to their barracks – real prisoners – and apart from a few who were allowed into the town to bring rations every fourth day, they had no freedom of movement beyond the small barrack compound (freedoms under parole not generally being available to Other Ranks) and cold and boredom were major problems. Formerly, said Rev. Wolfe, they could only be restrained by force, and bolts and bars were the only means of keeping them safely. Now bolts and bars were vain and they constantly broke through them, but the Commandant was persuaded and acted entirely upon that persuasion that the only thing that could bind them was the moral obligation of their word; which given or implied, they never broke in any instance that came to my brow- ledge. Not until much later were some of the men allowed out to work in the town or simply go for walks.
The prison dress provided by the French consisted of a grey jacket and trousers and a straw hat. In addition to the French authorities’ grant of a regular small sum of money to each prisoner (1 and a half sols per day = three farthings) each man also got a daily allowance of half a pound of meat – said to be beef, but which consisted of heads, liver, lights, and other offal of the bullock, and that not very fat, a pound of bread and a certain proportion of pulses. These were generally found to be inadequate but eventually townspeople and local traders came to the prison and were allowed to sell foodstuffs to the prisoners.
In due course, prisoners sometimes received additional funds from England through government allowances, the efforts of officers, philanthropic societies and well-wishers, though much of what was sent (certainly in the form of actual money) often did not reach its destination and some was anyway “taxed” by the French authorities or simply stolen by the guards. Local shopkeepers and farmers were able to sell food etc. to the prisoners but one problem was the men’s predilection for spending their little money on drink – understandable perhaps under the circumstances, but liable to cause violence and discipline problems. As brandy and other spirits were exceedingly cheap, they frequently contrived to get intoxicated and altogether were most refractory, giving endless trouble to the incensed officials in charge.The Committee for the Relief of British Prisoners in France was established as early as 1803, its purpose being to oversee the distribution of charitable aid to prisoners, from money collected from prisoners’ families and friends or by public subscription. In Verdun, a “Charitable Committee” made up of detenus and resident officers became the centre and hub for incoming funds and gifts and distributed them around the system, with Parisian bankers like Messrs. Perregaux & Co. channelling the funds from Britain to Verdun.
There were several organisations collecting funds for the relief of prisoners, including many national and local charitable institutions and associations set up for the purpose. One was the “Louis Fund” established via the bankers Coutts and Co., named from the sum of £5000, to be distributed at the rate of one louis d’or per man to every prisoner in distress which was received from ‘an unknown quarter’ in 1808 and issued via the committee at Verdun through the bankers Thomas Coutts & Co. Others were The Patriotic Society (which aimed to supply 14 sols per week or equivalent in “provisions” per prisoner) but restricted payments to the aged and wounded, to the instruction of the young men, and to the relief of such prisoners of weak health, whose disorders were not sufficiently dangerous to necessitate their being transferred to the hospital and the Lloyd’s charities, founded in Lloyd’s Coffee Shop, which sent money to PoW causes in France – mainly to naval recipients. Lloyd’s Patriotic Fund was founded as early as 1803 and is one of the oldest military charities in the world.
There were also several unofficial sources of funds from Britain e.g. specific prisoner relief fund-raising appeals, often in conjunction with entertainment events in London, such as the theatre or musical performances, whose proceeds were sent to the aid of the PoWs. The bankers Messrs. Le Mesurier sent £450 collected from the states of Jersey for the relief of natives of the island and similar subscriptions were made in the names of Guernsey, Merionethshire, Dartmouth and Cornwall. One letter survives on behalf of Nottinghamshire prisoners of war held in Givet to Henry, Duke of Newcastle, on 9th Dec. 1812, asking him as Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire to open a subscription for the relief of all prisoners of war in France who belonged to Nottinghamshire as other counties have already done; it asks for the money to be sent to the Rev. W. Gordon at Verdun who will distribute same to the Prisoners at the several depôts who amount in the whole to about 350.
Allowances paid to prisoners from British charities often varied according to the man’s own rank, resources and income, especially amongst naval prisoners, and some certainly received more than others. [Some three or four years after our arrival at Givet we were allowed from the English one penny per day, said to be from Lloyds, and by this addition to our French allowance we may safely attribute the saving of us all from starvation.]
Funds specifically to set up infirmaries and schools in the French PoW camps came from the above charities and philanthropists at home, from the families of wealthier prisoners or from officers and détenus. By October 1808 there was a hospital at each of the depots, with the exception of Sarrelibre, and the prisoners’ hospital at Arras contained separate fever wards. One officer recalled that: an infirmary is talked of in the citadel [at Arras], which the commandant wishes to have attended by English physicians. Many donations of funds destined for PoW schools were sent to the Schools’ Committee at Verdun and were then distributed to agents in camps like Givet.
However, as early as 1805 Napoleon prohibited prisoners from receiving pay in cash from their own Governments (i.e. official sources), but the French Minister of War allowed them to receive financial assistance from the relief societies in Britain and from their own friends and families. As a result, sums of money were sent by individuals in England for the use of named prisoners. Each host country (i.e. France in this case) would then be responsible for supporting its own PoW population by giving them allowances of cash and provisions. One possible reason for this was that it was becoming very expensive for the French government to provide funds for their own much larger number of PoWs held in England, which by some estimates outnumbered the British PoWs in France by four-to-one. As a result, the prisoners’ situation became wretched in the extreme; they were now deprived of the comforts to which they had been accustomed, they neither saw nor heard of their officers, they knew nothing of the continued solicitude of their own Government, and of the efforts made on their behalf.
One witness to the state of affairs in Givet was the “detained” Staffordshire vicar, the Rev. Robert B. Wolfe, arrested at Fontainebleau in 1803 when on “the Grand Tour” with his family and originally held in Verdun. Here, he set up a school for adult prisoners and one for incarcerated children. Wolfe volunteered to go to Givet (with his family!) rather than stay in the more comfortable officers’ camp at Verdun, in order to minister to the spritual well-being of the inmates (since they had no Chaplain in residence) and he came to play a leading role in supporting the physical and mental welfare of the prisoners. (I had a real and earnest desire for the spiritual good of my flock, according to the light which God had given me). After much debate in the British press and with the Archdiocese of Canterbury, the activities of such displaced British clergymen were recognised by the Church of England in April 1806; as a result, the Revd. Wolfe was appointed by the British Government, Chaplain to the prisoners here [Givet] with a salary of £200 per annum. He was in fact a truly remarkable man and an able organiser.
Wolfe was appalled at the state of Givet and its inmates (The prisoners spent their small allowance in drink … riot and excess and were mostly ragged and half-famished) and recorded that it was the worst prison he had ever seen in terms of conditions and morale: I soon discovered that I had undertaken a task of much more difficulty and danger, than I had at all been willing to believe. I found the depôt in the most deplorable state. Both in a moral and physical point of view it would be difficult to conceive anything more degraded and miserable….
On writer wrote that: On first removing to Givet, [Wolfe] found his countrymen sunk in every kind of abomination, half starved by the dishonesty of the French Commissaries, destitute of every comfort, and in a state of mind which aggravated all their external sufferings. The cruel, and unfeeling policy of the French government at the time, led them to make the condition of the prisoners as wretched as possible, that they might be the more easily tempted by the agents employed to seduce them from their allegiance; and the evils of captivity were studiously aggravated by the want of necessary food and covering, that the seamen might be induced to enlist in the French service. This species of treatment falling on minds ill prepared to resist it, had led to a degree of frightful demoralisation. Some few were drawn away by the offers made to them, and justified their desertion by the cold and hunger they had suffered. The rest seeing no prospect of release, without employment and without resource, sought for momentary forgetfulness in intoxication, when liquor could be procured; and then sunk into despondency, and sullen discontent. A more fearful exhibition of human nature it is hardly possible to conceive; and yet into this scene Mr. Wolfe resolved to throw himself.
The place was dirty and cold, the medical facilities negligible and the men hungry, bored, aggressive and often drunk – spending their small allowances on drink created real problems. Wolfe remained in Givet until 1811 when released under Napoleon’s orders. [see his English Prisoners in France, Containing Observations on Their Manners and Habits Principally with Reference to Their Religious State, during Nine Years’ Residence in the Depots of Fontainebleau, Verdun, Givet and Valenciennes, London, 1830. See below for extacts on Givet]
Will of a mariner in Givet, witnessed by Rev. Wolfe “Chaplain for British prisoners”
The Revd. Wolfe set about reorganising the whole place, with the assistance of the French authorities who at the earliest stages were at least helpful. Apart from organising regular religious services and instruction – his initial job in the camp – he reformed the medical wing and, as he had done at Verdun, set up a school in Givet to educate children (apparently 140 there in 1805 – which seems a lot) and one for the sailors, the majority of whom were completely illiterate, to provide tuition in basic reading, writing and arithmetic. It was very popular and apparently taken up by hundreds of the prisoners.
Perhaps the most remarkable thing about Givet is that the Revd. Wolfe, aided by a core team of sailors and détenus (civilian prisoners), organised a proper “school of navigation” within the camp to offer lessons in these complex skills to the captive naval personnel. This was run by a few Midshipmen, Petty Officers and other seamen who had any sort of education or relevant skill (there were no commissioned officers there) aided by Revd. Wolfe and naval surgeon John Lowmont (or Lawmont), who also acted as principal agent in Givet working with British charities sending aid to the prisoners via Verdun.
I then began to learn navigation; having but one old Hamilton Moore’s “Treatise” amongst us, I was obliged to copy out all the tables in that book before I could proceed with my learning. I then began in good earnest, and very often when I was in a corner with my books the greater part of my room-mates have been drunk and fighting all around me, but they never attempted to molest me. By close attention I made myself master of that science, and afterwards became a teacher to many others.
From late in 1805 until the (apparent) cessation of hostilities in April 1814, hundreds of Royal Navy and merchant service sailors, many originally illiterate, who had gone through the basic schooling on offer, undertook more serious studies in mathematics, geometry, trigonometry, astronomy etc. as necessary base skills for the complex art of navigation. The prisoners had regular classes with instructors in “classroom” settings and followed a prescribed curriculum. They were provided with teaching aids such as textbooks, note books, writing and drawing instruments, supplied by British charities, philanthropists and even by well-wishers amongst the local French population. The French camp authorities seem to have taken a fairly liberal and even helpful attitude to the plan in allowing materials to come into the camp; they perhaps considered that such an occupation would ease the levels of boredom and discontent that could have had serious effects.
This education, apart from giving bored prisoners a long-term diversion, provided the sort of education which most had never received (and probably never would have received) and it actually produced men properly trained in navigation who returned home – and in most cases back to life at sea – with skills which would be useful in their later careers. There are many known examples of this being the case.
The first French commandant was a Major Petervin (who may have done several “stints” in that role) and he seems to have been at least humane and considerate – some others were not and over the years many of the commandants and staff were often claimed to be hostile, grasping and unhelpful. From one cause or other, all classes of prisoners were liable to be suddenly removed to a different, and often very distant, depot, which was a severe punishment in itself, owing to the hardships invariably endured en route. Many prisoners died on the way during these transferences (see list below for prisoners moved into Givet from other camps). The depot at Bitche was a more severe “penal camp”, used to house the more recalcitrant prisoners or those who had made repeated escape attempts.
One remarkable incident in the life of Givet was the visit of Napoleon in November 1811. Travelling through Givet, he was cut off on the “wrong” side of the Meuse after heavy storms swept away the only pontoon bridge, but the local authorities came up with the bright idea of using supposed volunteers from the prison camp to work on repair. [messengers were despatched to the depot, to bring out some of the English sailors, and forty-five British prisoners were taken from the first passage, being the nearest to the prison-gate. The rest of us were locked up, but had the liberty of opening the windows, so as to have a view of the Emperor when he passed.]
Large numbers of men are reported to have volunteered (a welcome change of routine?) and the 45 chosen quickly put together a temporary pontoon bridge, which was still in use in 1814. The Emperor was reportedly very impressed and walked amongst the men, chatting with them (via an interpreter) and even – according to one account – offering them snuff from his own box! He certainly ordered fresh clothing to be supplied to the prison and a special ration of rum as a reward and ordered that 40 of the men should be released (those most involved in the repairwork), though it seems that only 12-14 were actually freed as a result of the Emperor’s largesse. At least they could say that they had seen Napoleon!
The war ended in April 1814 following the abdication of Napoleon at Fontainebleau and Minister Talleyrand signed the order for the release of all prisoners of war held in France, whatever their nationality, on the 13th April. However, some British prisoners around France had already been freed by then; 11 are known to have escaped from Givet over the years, though many others tried unsuccessfully, under threat of being sent as galley-slaves if recaptured. Some British prisoners had been granted freedom after marrying French women or by volunteering to work in French factories etc. – though they were not allowed to leave France; later in its existence, some prisoners in Givet – those with useful skills – had been allowed out to do paid work in the town during the day.
As early as December, 1813, British prisoners of war at the eleven depots in France, to the number of over 16,000, were put in motion ; those in the south were ordered to the north, and those in the north were sent towards the south, duly escorted by a strong guard until they were a few days march into the interior … On December 22nd, 1813, the joyful tidings at last arrived that we [in Givet] were to hold ourselves in readiness to march ; our destination was never made known to us, but we entertained hopes that our captivity was drawing to a close. They were daily bringing supplies of all kinds to the fortress of Charlemont, a thing that had been neglected for many years, and numbers of their sick and wounded were daily passing; also our own sick were taken from the hospital, put into carts, and conducted towards the interior of France without the least regard to the rigour of the season, nor was the least humanity shown to these unfortunate people… From December 24th 1813, to January 7th 1814, from 1oo to 150 prisoners were daily marched from Givet.
But it was not until 4th May 1814 that most of the prisoners, in batches, left Givet en route for England. As if they hadn’t put up with enough, most of the men from Givet – as was the case with some other camps – had to walk for months to reach the major British military base at Bordeaux (a long way, right across France and in freezing weather!) where a flotilla of ships specially assembled by Wellington had been arranged to transport 1,500 released prisoners to England.
One Givet prisoner recalled, after the long and arduous journey : Crossing the river [Garonne], we entered [Bordeaux], which we found to be in the possession of the British, a large number of naval and military officers and soldiers perambulating the streets. This occasioned us great surprise, as we had never heard that the British army from the Peninsula had taken full possession of the city. So at length we were arrived at our long-wished-for destination, having left the depot at Givet on January 7th 1814, and arrived at Bordeaux on April 27th 1814.
Most of the released army prisoners, if they were physically fit enough to remain in service, naturally returned to their original regiments and many went on to fight at Waterloo and/or later receive the Military General Service Medal.
Waterloo Medal of Cornelius Oberstreiten, 2nd Light Dragoons, KGL.
Captured in the rearguard action at Venta del Pozo, 23rd October 1812, during Wellington’s retreat from the unsuccessful siege of Burgos: “the most ferocious cavalry action in the Peninsular War”, which left 65 men as prisoners of the French. Other cavalry prisoners at Givet were captured here.
Held at Givet camp – which it took him 5 months to reach. The journey must have been “interesting”.
He did not claim – or live to claim – the MGS in 1847
An interesting and detailed account of a prisoner of war’s long march to imprisonment from central Spain, across the Pyrenees and through southern and eastern France, as well as his experiences of years in prison (in his case in Briançon in the Alps) and his eventual march across France to embark for England, is contained in the Journal of Sergt. Daniel Nicol(l), 92nd Highlanders. It is related in With Napoleon at Waterloo, which, despite its unhelpful title, is an interesting compilation of accounts and memoirs covering elements of the Peninsular War and the Waterloo campaign. It was compiled by E. B. Low, edited by Mackenzie MacBride, and published by Francis Griffiths, London, in 1911; now available as a reprint and online. Nicol was captured having been wounded at Talavera in July 1809, serving with the 1st Battn. of Detachments and also gives a good account of their service. [see article on Crowther on this site]. He lived to receive the MGS with clasps Egypt and Talavera.]
Medal of Pte. Henry Stutard/Stothard, 83rd Regt. – wounded at Talavera and captured as a result, he made the very long journey (like Sergt. Nicol, above) to the camp at Briançon in the Alps and in 1813 was transferred to Givet.
Some British Army prisoners in Givet, 1808-14
Most of the men held at Givet were royal navy and merchant navy ratings but there were small numbers of army personnel held there as well.
The following list is taken from surviving registers held in TNA at Kew. It cannot be considered complete.
1. The list is ordered alphabetically by surname, followed by regiment, then by date of capture as recorded in the French registers. Other remarks included place of capture or camp from which transferred (Briançon, Cambrai etc).
2. A second date (if given) is the date of arrival at Givet.
3. Names were originally recorded by French officials whose understanding of British or German surnames was sometimes limited, so some names are undoubtedly “mangled” and this needs to be borne in mind when searching the list.
4. Sometimes the stated dates of capture are difficult to reconcile with a regiment’s actual service or known location at that time – but they are given here as they occur in the registers.
5. Comments like “from Spain” and transfers to Givet from other camps (“from Cambrai /Cambray”, “from Briançon” etc.) are as in the original ledgers.
Abstract – of the men listed below, the largest regimental blocs are from the 34th (65 men), the 71st (45), the 4th (45) and the 87th (36). Of non-British regiments, the are 40 from the King’s German Legion [KGL], 17 were “Brunswickers” and 14 were from the Chasseurs Britanniques.
245 are listed as captives from Spain, 175 were transferred from the camp at Briançon and 71 from Cambrai. Just a few women, as “wives of soldiers”, are also listed.
[-]eggan, Danl. 92nd Regt. 17.9.12 - 13.3.13 Adams, John 36th Regt. 17.11.12 Adams, Richd. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 Adams, Robt. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 Adams, Saml. Ryl. Arty. 21.3.12 Afflick, Jas. 42 Regt. 26.10.12 Alcock, Wm. 52nd Regt. 18.11.12 Alms, Hy. 10th Dgns. 28.7.09 - from Briançon Ambrusetti, Peter Chas. Brit. 27.11.12 Andrews, Benj(?) 34th Regt. 25.7.13 Andrews, John 1st Regt. 11.1.09 - 5.8.09 - cap in Spain Andrews, John 28th Regt. Andrews, Wm. 87th Regt. 18.11.13 Anthoni, John Brunswicker 16.7.13 Anton, Jacob 60th Regt. 16.11.12 Arnold, Edward 38th Regt. 9.1.09 - 5.8.09 - cap in Spain Arnold, Edwd. 79th Regt. Ashkey, John 82nd Regt. 1.11.12 Ashley, Wm. 4th Regt 7.5.10 Ashmore, Wm. 38th Regt. 15.11.12 - taken at Salamanca Ashton, Edwd. 3/1st Regt. 18.1.09 - 5.8.09 - cap in Spain Aspill, Jas. 87th Regt. 17.11.12 Aston, Wm. 1st Regt. 18.1.09 - 5.8.09 - cap in Spain Bacon, Robt. 4th Regt. 7.5.10 - from Briançon Badcock, Jas. 4th Regt. 7.5.11 - from Briançon Bagnall, Jos. 3rd Dgns. 11.6.1 - 23.1.13 Bain, Chas. 61st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Bains, John 34th Regt. 25.7.13 Baker, Thos. 3rd Dgns. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Bakewell, Matth. 3rd Guards 25.10.12 Barber, Jean [John] 3rd Dgns. 11.6.12 - 23.1.13 Barber, John 92nd Regt. 25.7.13 Barber, Richd. 34th Regt. 7.7.13 Barker, Wm. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 Barnett, Robt. 9th Regt. 25.10.12 - from Cambrai Barns, Wm. 3rd Guards 6.8.09 - from Briançon Barret, Jas. 7th Regt. 17.11.12 Barret, Wm. 87th Regt. 17.11.12 Barry, James 95th Regt. Barton, Danl. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 Beatty, Alexr. 92nd Regt. 10.1.10 - from Briançon Beckett, David 83rd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Beckmann, Andre KGL Hussars 14.11.12 - from Cambrai Bedford, John 51st Regt. 17.11.12 - from Cambrai Beaird, Steph. 4th Regt. Beatzold, John KGL "Invalid" Belcher, Jas. 66th Regt. Belt, Phil. 60th Regt. 7.11.12 Bennet, Jas. 87th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Benstead, John 34th Regt. 17.11.12 Bera, Wm. 50th Regt. 20.2.12 Bishop, Saml. 50th Regt. 20.2.12 Blacklock, John 2nd Guards 25.10.12 - from Cambrai Blair, Wm. 87th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Bland, Thos. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 Bocking, John 4th Regt. 7.5.10 - from Briançon Bogg, John 4th Regt. 7.5.09 - from Briançon Bolokov, Christn. 1st Bn. KGL 23.11.12 Bolton, Squire (sic) 1st Ryl. Dgns 11.6.12 Boncer, John 30th Regt. 17.11.12 Boney, John 45th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Boniface, Wm. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 Bormann, Jos. KGL Hussars 8.11.12 - from Cambrai Bower, Wm. 31st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Bowle, R. 48th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Box, Jas 1st Regt. 11.1.09 - 5.8.09 - cap in Spain Box, James 20th Regt. Boylan, Phil. 71st Regt. 17.11.12 Bradley, Thos. 31st Regt. 10.6.10 - from Briançon Braga, J. 14th Regt. 17.10.12 Braley, Thos. 3rd Guards 18.11.12 Branan, Michl. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 Bratton, Benj. 3rd Dgn. Gds 11.6.12 - 23.1.13 Brennan, John 51st Regt. 19.11.12 Brick, Wm. 3rd Guards 18.11.12 Brickwood, Thos. 7th Regt. 16.11.12 Brightwell, Thos. 2nd Guards 6.8.09 - from Briançon Bromley, Jas. 50th Regt. 20.2.12 Brown, Chas. 2nd Guards 6.8.09 - from Briançon Brown, John 24th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Cambrai Brown, John (1) 71st Regt. 25.7.13 Brown, John (2) 71st Regt. 25.7.13 Brown, Wm. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 Burch, Wm. 45th Regt. 20.2.12 Burgot, Geo. Chas. Brit. 17.11.12 Burk, Robt 14th Regt. 9.1.09 -5.8.09 - cap in Spain Burk, Robt. 26th Regt. Burn, Matth. 87th Re 17.11.12 Burns, John 44th Re 26.10.12 - from Cambrai Burns, Patk. 27th Regt. 16.11.12 Burton, Peter 4th Regt. 17.11.12 Butcher, Thos. 5th Regt. 4.6.09 - from Briançon Butler, John 52nd Regt. 15.11.12 Byrom, Hy. 1st Guards 18.11.12 Cahal, Patk. 87th Regt. 17.11.12 Calahan, John 4th Regt. 7.5.10 - from Briançon Caminsky, Jn. Chas. Brit. 7.11.12 Campbell, Jas. 4th Regt. 7.5.10 - from Briançon Canahan, Thos. 4th Regt. 7.5.10 - from Briançon Canvin, Jas. 40th Regt. 6.8.09 -from Briançon Carpenter, Geo. 4th Regt. 7.5.10 - from Briançon Carr, Alex. 1st Regt. 23.10.12 Carrel, Thos. 87th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Carrel, Thos. 27th Regt. 19.11.12 Casey, Thos. 87th Regt. 15.11.13 Chadwick, Danl. 61st Regt. 10.1.10 - from Briançon Chapman, John 24th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Christy, Jas. 43rd Regt. 17.11.12 Clancy, John 28th Regt. 9.1.09 - 5.8.09 - cap in Spain Clark, Jas. 4th Regt. 17.11.12 Clark, John 48th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Clark, John 61st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Clark, Patk. 87th Regt. 17.11.12 Clark, Thomas 24th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Clifford, Wm. 58th Regt. 26.10.12 Clinton, Arthur 30th Regt. 17.11.12 Clinton, Arthur 30th Regt. 17.9.12 13.3.13 Clows, Thos. 52nd Regt. 10.1.10 - from Briançon Collemborn, Wm. 28th Regt. 9.1.09 - 5.8.09 - cap in Spain Colley, Jos. 38th Regt. 2.11.12 Collier, Saml. 38th Regt. 25.10.12 Conerly, Michl. 4th Regt. 17.11.12 (sc. Connolly?) Coning, Martin Brunswick 16.7.13 (Cining?) Connell, John 27th Regt. 18.11.12 Connolly, Hy. 25th Regt. 4.1.09 - 5.8.09 - cap in Spain Connolly, Thos. 95th Regt. 19.11.12 Connoly, Edward 27th Regt. 18.11.12 Connoly, Thos. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 (sc. Connolly?) Conner, Chas. 27th Regt. 4.10.12 - 7.2.13 [sc. Connor?] Connor, John 28th Regt. 18.11.12 Cook, Edward 4th Regt. 7.5.10 - from Briançon Cooley, Jos. 38th Regt. 17.11.12 Cooper, Michl. 40th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Cosgrove, Bernd. 47th Regt. 17.11.12 Cossey, John 28th Regt. 25.7.13 Cotherd, John 32nd Regt. 26.10.12 Coulston, Thos. 91st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Cousins, Jas. 29th Regt. 28.7.09 - from Briançon Cox, Wm. 28th Regt. 25.7.13 Craven, Wm. 50th Regt. 3.7.13 Crawford, Thos. 23rd Dgns. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Crews, John 3rd Dgns. 11.7.12 - 7.2.13 Crook, Jas. 4th Dgns. 25.10.12 - from Cambrai Cross, John 28th Regt. 25.7.13 Culver, Thos, 82nd Regt. 16.11.12 - from Cambrai Curnick, Wm. 82nd Regt. 1.11.12 Curron, Patk. 11th Regt. 22.12.12 - 2.3.13 Curtis, Nich. 88th Regt. 26.11.12 - 2.3.13 Daintith (sic), Chas 34th Regt. 25.7.13 Dalbaux, Peter 60th Regt. 9.11.12 - from Cambrai Daly, John 61st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Daly, John 4th L.Dgns. 18.11.12 - 2.3.13 Daron, Wm. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 Daubenor, Wm. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 Davis, Hy. 9th Regt. 6.11.12 Davis, John 3rd Guards 6.8.09 - from Briançon Davis, Saml. 39th Regt. 17.11.12 Davis, Wm. 4th Regt. 16.11.12 - 2.3.13 Day, John 1st Dragns 11.6.12 - 23.1.13 Dayman, Chas 1st Divn. Inf. 4.10.12 - from Verdun Deason, Wm. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 Decks, John 4th Regt. 7.5.10 - from Briançon Delion, Clement 3rd Regt. 16.11.12 Devenport, Geo. 82nd Regt. 17.11.12 Dewhurst, Jos. 3rd Guards 23.10.12 - from Cambrai Dillon, John 31st Regt. 6.4.09 - from Briançon Dismond, Geo. 9th Regt. 7.11.12 Dixon, Benj. 38th Regt. 17.11.12 Dometroff, Ant. KGL 7.11.12 Donker, Andw. 23rd Regt. 21.3.13 Donnalson, John 71st Regt. 25.7.13 Donnely, Francis 87th Regt. 15.11.13 Donnoly, John 52nd Regt. 17.11.12 Doorie, Wm 71st Regt. 25.7.13 Doran, Patk. 40th Regt. 17.11.12 Doughty, Wm. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 Downs, Jas. 66th Regt. 6.8.09 Doyle, Jeremiah 27th Regt. 17.11.12 Doyle, John 61st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Dresler, Franc. 60th Regt. 14.11.12 - from Cambrai Duarte, Manuel 11th Regt. 25.10.12 Duckworth, John 31st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Dueston, Isaac 38th Regt. 16.11.12 - from Cambrai Duff, John 87th Regt. Duffy, Phil. 27th Regt. 18.9.12 - 13.3.13 Duke, Wm. 3rd Regt. 28.7.09 - from Briançon Dulkowitz, John KGL 16.11.12 - from Cambrai Dummet, John 39th Regt. 25.7.13 Dunbar, John 94th Regt. 16.9.13 Duncan, Andw. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 Duncan, Jas. 92nd Regt. 25.7.13 Early, Jos. 31st Regt. 16.11.12 Eaton, Thos. 87th Regt. 17.11.12 Ellis, Rice 52nd Regt. 16.11.12 Elze, Fredk. 1st Regt. 9.1.09 - 5.8.09 -cap in Spain England, Cousins 4th L. Dgns 18.11.12 - 13.3.13 Englisch, Jos. Brunswick 9.11.12 Everett, Thos. 34th Regt. 17.11.12 Evris, Geo. 4th Regt. 16.11.12 Exley, Joshua 34th Regt. 25.7.13 Fanning, Owen 97th Regt. 6.4.09 - from Briançon Fare, Thos. Cold. Gds 20.11.12 Farmer Wm. 3rd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Farran, Wm. 30th Regt. 15.9.12 - 13.3.13 Farrel, Patk. 28th Regt. 25.7.13 Farrow, James 34th Regt. 25.7.13 Fear, Wm. 11th Dgns. 23.10.12 Fenny, Owen 27th Regt. 15.11.12 Fenton, Jas. 24th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Fife, John 92nd Regt. 25.7.13 Finlay, Patk. 4th Regt. Fisher, Jos. 38th Regt. 16.11.12 Fitgerald, Sol. 28th Regt. 25.7.13 Fitzpatrick, Chris. 87th Regt. 17.9.12 - 13.3.13 Flanket, Thos. 4th Regt. 7.5.10 - from Briançon Flarty, Patk. 87th Regt. 13.10.12 Flearty, Michl. 87th Regt. Flemming, John 2nd Regt. 10.1.09 - 5.8.09 - cap in Spain Fletcher, Hy. 14th Regt. 9.1.09 -5.8.09 - cap in Spain Flood, Michl. 61st Regt. 9.8.09 - from Briançon Fogg, Jas. 1st Gds 26.11.12 - from Cambrai Foley, John 71st Regt. 25.7.13 Foot, Henry 61st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Foster, Jas. 95th Regt. 3.6.13 Foster, John 79th Regt. 9.1.09 - 5.8.09 - cap in Spain Fowley, Bernd. 27th Regt. 15.11.12 Fox, John 34th Regt. 17.11.12 Francis, Geo. 38th Regt. 9.1.09 - 5.8.09 - cap in Spain Frankland, Jas. 32nd Regt. 18.11.12 Franks, Geo. 28th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Cambrai Franvinkilen, G. KGL "Invalid" Frazer, Jas. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 French, John 23rd Regt. 1.11.12 French, Patk. 51st Regt. 17.11.12 Fry, Fredk. KGL 6.8.09 - from Briançon Fryer, A(?) 14th Dgns. 10.1.10 - from Briançon Gaffany, Patk. 88th Regt. 18.11.13 Gallagher, Michl. 87th Regt. 17.11.12 Gape, Anthy. KGL 15.11.12 - from Cambrai Garvey, John 24th Regt. 6.4.09 - from Briançon Gaughan, Andw. 87th Regt. 17.11.12 Gavin, Geo. 87th Regt. 18.11.12 Gaws, Jos. 48th Regt. 15.11.12 Gayton, John 34th Regt. 25.7.13 Gilborne, Geo. 4th Regt. 17.11.12 Gillies, John 16th Dragns 28.7.09 - taken at Rodrigo Gladhil, Wm. 31st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Glancey, Wm. 87th Regt. 6.4.09 - from Briançon Glinton, John 3rd Gds 6.8.09 - from Briançon Goldsmith, Matth. 83rd Regt. 6.8.09 -from Briançon Gorasson, John Brunswick 25.10.12 - from Cambrai Gorin, Thos. 32nd Regt. 22.10.12 Gowmer, Joseph 4th Regt. 17.11.12 Gowthorpe, Thos. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 Graff, Adam KGL 6.8.09 - from Briançon Graham, Edwd. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 Graham, John 28th Regt. 15.11.12 - taken at Salamanca Green, Wm. 11th Regt. 17.11.12 Greenham, Michl. 48th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Griffith, John 3rd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Grimshaw, Jas. 39th Regt. 17.11.12 Grosvenor, Wm. 39th Regt. 25.7.13 Gunley, Wm. 1st Royals 25.11.12 Gunn, John 71st Regt. 25.7.13 Haffey, Jas. Ryl. Arty. 28.7.09 - from Briançon Haley, Wm. 31st Regt. 16.11.12 - from Spain Hall, John 66th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Hall, James 83rd Regt. Ham, Thos. 28th Regt. 9.1.09 - 5.8.09 - cap in Spain Hamilton, Patk. 83rd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Hancock, Matth. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Hancock, Wm. 32nd Regt. 9.1.09 - from Briançon Hanken, Jacob Brunswick 16.11.12 - from Cambrai Hanning, Geo. 58th Regt. 29.10.12 - 2.3.13 Hansell, Jas. 24th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Harbourn, Thos. 4th Regt. 7.8.09 - from Briançon Hares, Saml. 4th Regt. 7.5.10 - from Briançon Harley, Michl. 92nd Regt. 25.7.13 Harper, Francis 92nd Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Harps, Edwd. 3rd Guards 6.8.09 - from Briançon Harris, Enock 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Harrison, Richd. 28th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Hattersley, Geo. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Hatton, Thos, 4th Regt. 7.3.10 - from Briançon Haveton, Thos. 27th Regt. 29.10.12 - from Spain Haxton, Thos. 92nd Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Haynman, John 89th Regt. Hays, Jas. 57th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain Hayward, Wm. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 -taken in Spain Haywood, Hy. 28th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Haywood, Jos. 48th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Healy, Andrew 87th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain Hedger, Wm. 4th Regt. 7.5.10 -from Briançon Hellesker, Geo. 40th Regt. 6.8.09 -from Briançon Hellim, Thos. 13th Dgns. 7.4.11 - from Briançon Heneman, Saml. Ryl Staff Cps 2.11.12 - from Spain Hermitage, Wm. 2nd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Hermsted, Carl. Brunswick 24.10.12 - from Spain Hersey, Richd. "Sussex Militia" Herwood, John 28th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Hessell, Fredk. 1st Line KGL Hewit, Wm. 38th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Spain Higgins, Jas. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Hill, Benj. 40th Regt. 15.11.12 - 19.3.13 Hitchins, Isaac 11th Light Dgns Hodel, Hy. Chass. Brit. 1.8.12 - taken in Spain Hogan, John 61st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Holland, John 2nd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Holliday, John 66th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Hommery, David 83rd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Hopkins, Robt. 61st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Hopkins, Wm. 7th Regt. 19.11.12 - 7.2.13 Hopwood, Wm. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Horan, Patk. 87th Regt. 17.11.12 - 2.3.13 Horrell, John 2nd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Hoy, David 83rd Regt. 7.8.09 - from Briançon Hubbla [sic] Jas. 28th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Hugh(e)s, Thos. 23rd Regt. 18.9.12 - 13.3.13 Hughes, Thos. 23rd Regt. 17.11.12 Hughes, Jas. 27th Regt. 4.10.12 - 7.2.13 Hunderhays, John 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Hunt, Jos. 7th Regt. 24.11.12 - from Spain Hurst, Jas. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Hurst, Jean 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Hutchinson, Isaac 11th L. Dgns 22.6.11 - 16.11.12 Irwin, John 87th Regt. 19.11.12 - from Spain Isaacs, Mchl. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - from Cambrai Jack, John 1st Regt. 23.11.12 - from Spain Jackman, Wm. 87th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain Jackson, Geo. 34th Regt. 28.7.13 - from Cambrai Jackson, Wm. 61st Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain Jagar, Edwd. 53rd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Jagar, Fredk. 5th Line KGL "Invalid" [Jagar, Catharine Soldier's wife] Jakeman, John Ry. Arty. 16.11.12 - 2.3.13 Jaresnak, Casimir Chas. Brit. 12.10. - 12 2.3.13 Jefcote, Thos, 3rd Guards 18.11.12 - from Spain Jennings, Wm. 7th Regt. 18.11.12 - from Spain Johan, Andrew Chass. Brit. 17.11.12 - from Spain Jones, Andrew 39th Regt. 6.11.12 from Spain Jones, John 39th Regt. 16.10.12 - 2.3.13 Jones, John 81st Regt. Jones, John Ryl. Arty. 26.10.12 - taken at Placencia Jones, Thos. 23rd Regt. 30.10.12 - from Spain Jones, Wm. 31st Regt. 18.11.12 Jones, Wm. 23rd Regt. 23.7.09 - from Briançon. Died 6.6.13 Jones, Wm. 31st Regt. 18.9.12 - 13.3.13 Jordan, Wm. 28th Regt. 25.7.13 - from Cambrai Kain, Anthy. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - from Cambrai Kain, John 48th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Cambrai Karigan, Jas. 68th Regt. 6.11.12 - from Cambrai Keiritz, Christopher 9th [5th?] Line KGL - 30.8.10; cap. Talavera 7.8.09; Kelly, Jas. 2nd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Kelly, Jas. 53rd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Kelly, Laughton 74th Regt. 19.12.13 - from Cambrai Kelly, Michl. 42nd Regt. 9.1.09 - 5.8.09 - cap in Spain Kelly, Thos. 48th Regt. 16.11.12- from Spain Kennely, James 34th Regt. 15.11.12 - from Cambrai Kenworthy, John 31st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Key, Wm. 91st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Keys, John 23rd Dgns. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Kinkade, Jas. 87th Regt. 19.11.12 - from Spain Kinshilly, Jas. 83rd Regt. 25.10.12 - from Spain Kintner, Martin 60th Regt. 18.2.12 Kintner, Martin 60th Regt. 18.2.12 - 13.3.13 Kirk, Jas. 88th Regt. 6.8.09 Kirk, John 47th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain Kirkham, Edmond 34th Regt. 18.9.12 - 13.3.13 Kirshaw, Wm. 23rd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Knolle, Fredk. ?KGL Knott, Thos. 88th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Kobshu [sic], Andw. Chass. Brit. 16.11.12 - from Cambrai Krause, Fredk. 2 KGL 17.11.12 - from Spain Kretez, Christopher 5th Line KGL Kroseh, Christopher KGL "Invalid" Lammont, Danl. 2nd Regt. 5.1.09 - 5.8.09 - cap in Spain Lander/Lauder, Dvd. 71st Regt. 25.7.10 - taken in Spain Landergon, Morris 50th Regt. 20.2.13 - from Spain Lang, Conelius Brunswick 29.10.12 - from Spain Langing(?), Jas. 31st Regt. 16.11.12 - 2.3.13 Lanlover, Hy. 34th Regt. 25.7.10 - taken in Spain Lanning, Geo. 18th Regt. 29.10.12 Lathesson, Hy. 5th KGL 25.9.12 - from Briançon Laughran, Barney 28th Regt. 17.11.12 Law, Wm. 88th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Briançon Leary, Jas. 74th Regt. 19.11.12 - from Spain Lechtendahl, H. KGL "Invalid" Lee, John 82nd Regt. 9.1.09 5.8.09 - cap in Spain Legon, Jeremiah 15th Regt. 30.10.12 - from Spain Lennard, John 71st Regt. 25.7.10 - taken in Spain Leslie, Edwd. 27th Regt. 18.11.12 - from Spain Lewis, John 23rd Regt. 2.11.12 - from Spain Lewis, Thos. 61st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Linch, Bryan 88th Regt. 1.11.12 but see next: Linch, Bryan 88th Regt. 1.9.12 - 13.3.13 Ling, Jas. 92nd Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain Littley, John 38th Regt. 9.1.09 - from Briançon Livermore, Jas. 24th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Livesey, Richd. 31st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Lodger, Wm. 5th Regt. 28.7.09 - from Briançon Loggan, Danl. 92nd Regt. 17.11.12 Lonagin, Patk. 27th Regt. 18.11.13 - from Cambrai Lovelock, James 76th Regt. Loveredge, John 7th Regt. 30.10.12 - entry deleted Loveridge, John 7th Regt. 30.10.12 - from Spain Low, John 95th Regt. 18.11.12 - taken in Spain Lowe, John 5th Regt. 2.10.12 - taken in Madrid Lowlock, Jas. 76th Regt. 9.1.09 - 5.8.09 - cap in Spain Lowm, Wm. 45th Regt. 15.11.12 - from Spain Lowmont, Danl. 95th Regt. Lucani, Louis Chass. Brit. 29.10.12 - from Cambrai Lucentos, Joachim Chass. Brit. 24.11.12 - from Cambrai Luming, Richd. 61st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Lundergin, Walter 88th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Lunghran(?), Barney 28th Regt. 17.9.12 - 13.3.13 Lunn, Thos. 36th Regt. 16.11.12-- from Spain Lupschewitz, Wm KGL 16.11.12 - from Cambrai Lynch, Hy. Ryl Arty. 2.11.12 - 2.3.13 Lynch, Patk. 88th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Spain Lyon, Patk. 87th Regt. 17.11.12 from Spain Lyons, John 28th Regt. 25.7.10 - taken in Spain Lysaght, Patk. 4th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain Macnamara, John 57th Regt. 17.11.12 - taken in Spain Macnamara, Michl. 39th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain Mahon, Alex. 27th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain Mahoney, John 83rd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Mainhort, Jos. Chass. Brit. 24.10.12 - from Spain Maitland, Alex. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Make, Jos. Brunswick 20.10.12 - from Cambrai Mallow, Wm. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Maloy, Edwd. 57th Regt. 18.11.13 - taken in Spain Maloy, Peter 68th Regt. 9.11.12- from Cambrai Maloy, Thos. 48th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Manson, Alex. 61st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Mariott, Thos. 47th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Marshall, Jos. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Mart, Wm. 23rd Light Dgns. Martin, Benj. 4th Regt. Martin, Dennis 31st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Martin, Thos. 45th Regt. 16.11.12 - from Spain Mason, Thos. 23rd Regt. 30.10.12 - from Spain Mason, Thos. 23rd Regt. 30.10.12 - from Spain Mason, Wm. 88th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Mateose, Louis KGL 15.11.12 - taken at Salamanca Mathew, Owen 61st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Mathews, Andw. 89th Regt. 15.10.12 - from Spain Mathews, John 27th Regt. 2.11.12 - from Cambrai Matra (sic), Francis 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Matthews, L. 23rd Regt. 14.11.12 - from Spain Mawsley, Robt. 45th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon May, Jas. 48th Regt. 5.11.12 - from Spain May, Jas. 4th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain Mayberry, Jas. 48th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Mayo, Geo. 2nd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Mayo, Richd. 24th Regt. 4.10.12 - 7.2.13 Mays, John 2nd Guards 6.8.09 - from Briançon McCaffry, Hugh 27th Regt. 2.11.12 but see below: McCaffry, Hugh 27th Regt. 2.9.12 - 13.3.13 McCallum, Wm. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain McCauliff, Dennis 18th Regt. 29.11.12 - 2.3.13 McCarty, John 44th Regt. 25.10.12 - from Spain McCarty, John 28th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain McClenham, Alex. 4th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon McClinchy, Frs. 87th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon McConnocky, Jos. 92nd Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain McCosland, Alex. 3rd Guards 24.10.12 - from Spain McCullock, Wm. 4th Regt. 7.5.10 - from Briançon McDermott, Alex. 92nd Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain McDonald, Duncan 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain McDonald, Ferguson 16th Dragns 22.6.13 - taken in Spain McDonald, John 87th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon McEbb, Patk. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain McEbb, Wm. 38th Regt. 21.6.13 - taken in Spain McGinn, Robt. 28th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain McGuire, Edwd. 37th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain McGuire, Hugh 32nd Regt. 16.11.12 - from Spain McKeevor, Richd. 88th Regt. 19.11.12 - from Spain McLaren, John 79th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain McLaren, Thos. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain McLean, John 79th Regt. 16.11.12 - from Spain McLeod, Hugh 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain McMahon, Bernd. 24th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon McMahon, Jas. 83rd Regt. 27.11.12 - from Cambrai McMullan, Jas. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain McNelly, John Ryl. Arty. 6.8.09 - from Briançon McPhee, Saml. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain McQueen, Angus 24th Regt. 16.11.12 - from Spain Mcroney, Michl. 2nd Guards 17.11.12 - from Spain Meehan, Lau. 27th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain Merrit, Danl. 66th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Meyer, Fredk. 1st KGL 17.11.12 - from Spain Miles, Conolly 66th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Miller, Edwd. 36th Regt. 15.11.12 - taken in Spain Miller, John 95th Regt. 16.11.12 - taken at Salamanca Miller, John KGL 17.11.12 - from Cambrai Miller, Matthew 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Mills, Andrew 91st Regt. 10.6.09 - from Briançon Miner/Mider(?), Peter KGL Mitchell, Wm. 2nd Regt. 29.8.12 - from Cambrai Mitchin, Thos. 24th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Moland, John 45th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Monaghan, Owen 88th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Montgomery, Jas. 45th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Moody, Aaron 50th Regt. 3.7.13 - taken in Spain Moore, Geo. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Moore, John 28th Regt. 9.1.09- 5.8.09 - cap in Spain Moore, Matthew 31st Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain Moreloy, John 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Morn, John 38th Regt. 15.11.12 - from Spain Morris, John 23rd Regt. 1.11.12 - from Spain Morris, Wm. 23rd Regt. Morris, Michl. 38th Regt. 26.11.12 Morris, Robt. 39th Regt. 15.11.12 - from Spain Morris, Walter 3rd Regt. 16.11.12 - from Spain Morton, Andw. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Mullen, Thos. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Munslow, Jos. 2nd Guards 6.8.09 - from Briançon Murray, Bernd. 71st Regt. 11.1.10 - from Briançon Murray, Jas. 92nd Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Murray, John 71st Regt. 10.1.09 - from Briançon Murray, John 87th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain Murray, Robt. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Murray, Thos. 87th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain Nalon, Andw. 66th Regt. 16.11.12 - from Spain Nangle, Michl. 95th Regt. 16.11.12 - from Spain Needham, Jas. 48th Regt. 30.10.12 - from Spain Nephon, Peter KGL 28.10.12 - from Cambrai Neuhause, Wm. 14th Dragns [–].11.12 - 17.3.13 see Newhouse Neviatemky, Andw. KGL 16.11.12 - from Cambrai Newhouse, Wm. 14th Dragns. [-.] 10.12 - taken in Spain Newton, John 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - from Cambrai Nicholson, Michl. 51st Regt. 6.11.12 - from Spain Nock, John 16th Regt. 15.11.12 - taken at Salamanca Noonan, John 42nd Regt. 18.11.12 - from Cambrai Norget, Hy. 4th Regt. 7.5.10 - from Briançon Norton, Patk. 12th Drag. 23.10.12 - from Spain Nowatzke, Val. KGL 25.10.12 - from Cambrai O’Brian, John 14th Dgns. 5.11.12 - from Spain O’Neal, Edwd. 27th Regt. 14.11.12 - from Spain Oberstraeten, Cornls. 2nd K.G.L. 23.10.12 - 2.3.13 [Light Dgns] Orty, Richd. 5th Regt. 15.11.12 - from Spain Osborn, Geo. 4th Regt. 7.5.10 - from Briançon [Osborn, Eliz. Soldier's wife] Owen, John 23rd Regt. 29.10.13 - taken Spain Page, Jos. 61st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Pambough, Andre Chass. Brit. 15.7.13 - taken in Spain Panil, John Chass. Brit. 16.11.12 - from Cambrai Parker, Hugh 29th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Parkin, John 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Patterson, Robt. 7th Regt. 2.11.12 - taken in Spain Patterson, Wm. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Pawson, Elisha 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Peasley, Hugh 95th Regt. 3.7.09 - from Briançon Pee, John 23rd Light Dgns. Pender, Jas. 94th Regt. 18.11.12 - taken in Spain Penny, Chas. 12th Dgns. 2.9.12 - from Spain Perkins, Wm. Ryl. Arty. 11.8.12 - 23.1.13 Petit, John 4th 7.5.10 - from Briançon Petrea, Robt. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Pewsey, Thos. 4th Regt. 7.5.10 - from Briançon Phillips, Chas. 32nd Regt. 9.1.09 - 5.8.09 - cap in Spain Picket, John 4th Regt. 18.11.12 - from Cambrai Pitts, John Colds. Gds. 24.10.12 - from Spain Planket, Thos. 4th Regt. 7.5.10 - from Briançon Platford, Benj. 3rd Guards 24.10.12 - from Spain Pleuchner, Bernd. 60th Regt. 18.11.12 - from Spain Polser, Lucas Ryl. Arty. 17.11.12 - from Spain Ponfero, Francis Chass. Brit. 18.10.12 - from Cambrai Poperosky, Hy. KGL "Invalid" Portus (sic), Geo. 31st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Powell, Edwd. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Power, Matth. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Power, Richd. 2nd Guards 6.8.09 - from Briançon Preston, Saml. 45th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Price, Thos. 44th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Cambrai Pullen, Chas. 9th Regt. 10.1.10 - from Briançon Purser, John 17th Regt. 1.11.12 - from Spain Quinn, Chas. 82nd Regt. 16.11.12 - from Spain Quinn, John 44th 17.11.12 - from Spain Quinn, Peter 82nd Regt. 16.11.12 - from Spain Quirk, John 5th Regt. 18.11.12 - from Spain Quirk, Thos. 28th Regt. 25.7.12 - from Spain Raney, (Wm.?) 79th Regt. 26.10.12 - from Spain Rannea, David 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Rayman, Hy. 4th Regt. 7.5.10 - from Briançon Redhead, Geo. 31st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Rees, Wm. 40th Regt. 1.11.12 - from Briançon Reeve, Wm. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Reynold, Jos. 2nd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Reynolds, Michl. 27th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain Reynolds, Michl. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Reynolds, Wm. 28h Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Richards, Wm. 24th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Ricke, A. Brunswick 29.10.12 - from Spain Riley, Michl. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Roberts, John 11th Dgns. [-].6.11 - from Spain Robinson, John 2nd Guards 6.8.09 - from Briançon Robinson, John 48th Regt. 3.10.12 - from Cambrai Rockliffe, Geo. 83rd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Rodger, John 74th Regt. 16.11.12 - from Spain Rodgers, Jas. 53rd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Rodgers, John 27th Regt. 18.11.12 - from Spain Rogers, Jas. 39th Regt. 17.11.12 - taken in Spain Romanski, Jos. Chass. Brit. 5.10.12 - from Cambrai Rose, Jas. 82nd Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain Rosemir, Jos. Brunswick 16.7.13 - taken in Spain Ross, Gavin 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Roundey, Wm. 3rd Dgns. 8.11.12 - 23.1.13 Ruddy, David 88th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Russel, John 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Ruston, Timy. 3rd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Ryan, Michl. 87th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain Ryan, Thos. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Rysener, Thos. Brunswick 15.11.12 - taken at Salamanca Sacker, Joshua 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Salesberry, Jn. 1st Guards 9.1.10 - from Briançon Saleski, Ant. Chass. Brit. 15.11.12 - from Cambrai Saven, John 45th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Scavefel, Jacob Chas. Brit. 15.11.12 - 17.3.13 Scavola, Antoine KGL "Invalid" Schad, Joseph 60th Regt. 13.11.12 - 2.3.13 Schaumann, G. Brunswick 23.10.12 - from Cambrai Schroder, John Brunswick 23.10.12 - from Cambrai Scoffield, Wm. 44th Regt. 26.10.12 - from Cambrai Scott, John 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Scott, Michl. 87th Regt. 16.11.12 - from Spain Sedwell, Joshua 83rd Regt. 6.4.09 - from Briançon Senar, Bernd. Chass, Brit. 17.11.12 - from Cambrai Seygriff, Thos. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Seygriff, Patk. Royal African Corps Shandy, Geo. 16th Dgns. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Sharpley, Geo. 20th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Shaw, John 88th Regt. 17.11.13 - taken in Spain Shefsky, Jos. 60th Regt. 18.11.12 - from Cambrai Sheridan, Jas. 92nd Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Shipley, John 45th Regt. 6.4.09 - from Briançon Short, Thos. 39th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain Sibert, Hy. Brunswick 16.7.13 - taken in Spain Sime, Thos. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Skully, Jas. 58th Regt. 24.10.12 - captured Burgos Slack, John 48th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Sleeman/Sloeman, Geo. 32nd Regt. 9.1.09 - 5.8.09 - cap in Spain Sloan, Wm. 36th Regt. 28.6.12 - from Spain Smart, Alex. 92nd Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain Smawley, Chris. 31st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Smith, Chas. 23rd Dgns. 28.7.09 - from Briançon Smith, David 42nd Regt. 24.11.12 - from Spain Smith, Jas. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Smith, John 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Smith, Patk. 87th Regt. 17.11.12 - taken in Spain Smith, Simon 4th Regt. 7.5.10 - from Briançon Smith, Thos. 83rd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Smith, Thos. 29th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Smith, Wm. 3rd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Smith, Wm. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Sokoloff, John KGL 18.11.12 - from Cambrai Sotherland, David 39th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Southall, Saml. 3rd Guards 6.8.09 - from Briançon Sperry, Conrad 60th Regt. 9.10.12 - 2.3.13 Spiller, John Brunswick 16.11.12 - from Spain Spillner, John 1st Bn. KGL 25.10.12 - from Spain Sprew, John 3rd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Stanislaus, Leopold Chass. Brit. 14.11.12 - from Cambrai Stephenson, John 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Stevens, Edwd. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Stevenson, Thos. 3rd Guards 29.10.12 - from Cambrai Stevenson, Wm. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Stephenson, Wm. 89th Regt. Stewart, Jas. 79th Regt. 22.8.12 - from Spain Stewart, Norman 92nd Regt. 25.7.13 -taken in Spain Stirrup, Jas. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Stothard, Hy. 83rd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Strawbridge, John 45th Regt. 16.11.12 - from Spain Stringer, Isaac 34th Regt. 29.7.13 - taken in Spain Stubbins, Jno. 4th Regt. 7.5.10 - from Briançon Stubbs, John 2nd Guards 18.10.12 - from Spain Stubbs, Richd. "Sussex Militia" Suchi, Pierre Chass. Brit. 14.11.12 - from Cambrai Sugden, Saml. 7th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Cambrai Sullivan, John 61st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Sullivan, John 57th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain Sullivan, Thos. 31st Regt. 16.11.12 - from Spain Swan, Roger 61st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Swindell, Francis 31st Regt. 6.4.09 - from Briançon Switzer, Andw. Brunswick 16.11.12 - from Spain Sydon, Hugh 27th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain Tallot, Richd. 43rd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Taylor, Laurence 24th Regt. 25.7.12 - from Cambrai Thomas, Jas. 53rd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Thomas, John 34th Regt. 25.7.12 - from Cambrai Thomas, Thos. 3rd Guards 6.8.09 - from Briançon Thompson, John 71st Regt. 25.7.12 - from Cambrai Thompson, Thos. 31st Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Thompson, Wm. 68th Regt. 29.10.12 - from Spain Tolbert (sic), Thos. 88th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Tozinski, Martin KGL 16.11.12 - from Cambrai Travailleur, Ignus 7th Line KGL "Invalid" [Ignatius?] Turner, John 3rd Guards 6.8.09 - from Briançon Turpin, John 3rd Guards 6.8.09 - from Briançon Tye, Hiram 47th Regt. 6.8.09 -from Briançon Vasilio, Antoine 60th Regt. 13.11.12 - 2.3.13 Veller, Geo. Brunswick 18.10.12 - from Spain Vickers, Geo. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 -from Spain Vickers, Wm. 28th Regt. Volger, Hy. KGL "Invalid" Walker, Geo. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Walker, Jas. 27th Regt. 2.11.12 - from Cambrai Walker, Saml. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Walker, Wm. 9th Regt. 26.10.13 - taken in Spain Wallace, John 5th Dgns. 8.11.12 - taken in Spain Walter, Danl. 7th Line KGL Walters, John 45th Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Ward, Richd. 12th Drgns. 28.10.12 - 2.3.13 Warding, Jas. 83rd Regt. 18.11.12 - taken in Spain Wargner, Gotleib KGL 17.10.12 - from Spain Washusa, Thos. KGL 19.11.12 - from Cambrai Watson, Jas. 92nd Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Webb, Saml. 24th Regt. 6.11.12 - from Spain Wede, Amon KGL 15.11.12 - from Cambrai Wells, Jas. 3rd Guards 23.7.09 - from Briançon Welsh, Thos. 87th Regt. 18.10.12 - from Cambrai Wesnofsky, John KGL 15.11.12 - from Cambrai West, John 23rd Regt. 4.10.12 - 2.3.13 Westede, Hy. KGL "Invalid" Wharty, O. 74th Regt. 18.10.12 - 2.3.13 Whinpenny, Geo. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain White, Archd. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Whiteford, David 92nd Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Whitney, Saml. 48th Regt. 16.11.12 - from Spain Wigham, Geo. 34th Regt. 28.7.13 - taken in Spain Williams, David 4th Regt. 23.10.12 - taken in Spain Williams, John 23rd Regt. 1.11.12 - from Spain Williams, Saml. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Williams, Wm. 38th Regt. 28.10.12 - from Cambrai Williamson, Chas. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Wills, Thos. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Willy, Chas. 1st Regt. 11.1.09 - 5.8.09 - cap in Spain Wilson, John 52nd Regt. 17.11.12 - taken in Spain Wilson, Richd. 36th Regt. 16.11.12 - from Spain Wilson, Richd. 53rd Regt. 6.8.09 - from Briançon Winn, Jas. 87th Regt. 24.10.12 - from Spain Wood, Robt. 34th Regt. 23.7.13 - taken in Spain Wood, Wm. 71st Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Woodcock, John 50th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Spain Worley, Geo. 34th Regt. 25.7.13 - taken in Spain Wright, John 7th Regt. 2.11.12 - from Spain Wright, Thos. 1st Regt. 11.1.09 - 5.8.09 - cap in Spain Yarrington, Thos. 48th Regt. 17.11.12 - from Cambrai
An extract from the Rev. Wolfe’s English Prisoners in France, Containing Observations on Their Manners and Habits Principally with Reference to Their Religious State, during Nine Years’ Residence in the Depots of Fontainebleau, Verdun, Givet and Valenciennes, London, 1830
On my arrival at Givet, I soon discovered that I had undertaken a task of much more difficulty and danger than I had at all been willing to believe. I found the depôt in the most deplorable state. Both in a moral and physical point of view, it would be difficult to conceive anything more degraded and miserable. And as regards religion, every appearance of it was confined to some twenty methodists, who were the objects of the most painful persecution, and often the innocent cause of the most dreadful blasphemies. For, not content with abusing, and sometimes ill-treating them, the drunken and vicious, more effectually to distress and grieve them, would blaspheme that sacred name by which we are called, and utter their contempt in the most extravagant, and offensive mockery. The bodily privations of the prisoners, and their want of the comforts and common necessaries of life was equally distressing. The barracks were situated in a narrow pass, between the perpendicular rock of the fortress of Charlemont on the one side, and the river Meuse on the other; and all the space the men had for exercise was between the building itself and the river, along the side of which was a wall. This slip of ground, not more than ten paces in width, and exposed to the southern sun, was in the heat of summer a complete oven. Yet here they were obliged to walk, except they should stay in a hot room, with sixteen persons crowded into it all the day. In the hospital, the sick were mixed with those of the prisoners of other nations, and were in a shocking state of neglect, and covered with vermin. Not a single prisoner was allowed to go out into the town [later, some were; Wolfe records: many of the men … were permitted to work in the town, and were much sought after by those who wanted workmen or servants; and a great number walked out into the town, and even into the country every day]; and even the interpreter was accompanied by a gens d’armes. It was almost impossible for any of them to get any thing from their friends, for there was no one to receive it for them; and the little that did come, was subjected to a deduction of five per cent by the marechal des logis. And so great was their distress at that moment, that unable to satisfy the cravings of hunger, they were seen to pick up the potato peelings that were thrown out into the court and devour them.
It appears to be the natural tendency of misery and want, to foster vice, and encourage the worst feelings of the human heart; and that effect, in its fullest sense, was produced on this occasion. The little money that was received by the prisoners, instead of being applied to the relief of their wants and to make them more comfortable in food and clothing, was spent in riot and excess. On these occasions, sailors are, of all other men, most ready to communicate, and never think of to-morrow. And, left, as they were, entirely to themselves, no one caring for their souls, no one having the desire, or the power to restrain them, either by force or by persuasion, in the midst of the real distress which they experienced, the depôt of Givet was, perhaps, at that moment, the most reprobate spot that can be imagined.
In addition to these discouragements, connected with the field of labour which I had undertaken; I now found, that there were difficulties in my own situation, which would probably involve me in personal danger, of a very serious nature; or at least, cause me to be sent away to the dungeons of Bitche [penal camp].
The Commandant, and those that were under his orders, from the time I arrived at the depôt, viewed me with a very evil eye. They had all a share in the spoil of the poor prisoners and my interference on their behalf, and the opportunities which I had of detecting their extortions, enraged them exceedingly against me. Whenever I made an attempt, as I frequently did, to put a stop to the exactions upon the money which was sent in to the men; or when any complaint was made of the meat, or the bread, these officers were loud in their threats of denunciations and of sending me off to Bitche. And for the first two years of my stay in that place [Givet], I never went to bed without the impression upon my mind, that, ere the morning, I might probably be thus suddenly marched off.
Before I left Verdun, I had been cautioned not to pay any money to the prisoners, which might be remitted to me, either from their friends in England or from the charitable fund at Verdun, without express permission from the Command-ant, a caution which proved most salutary. For, even though I obtained this permission, the marechal des logis came to me the next morning, in a great rage, reproached me with taking away his honest gains, and required me in future to send in the money through him. I complained to the Commandant, who inveighed against the avarice of this man; but I found that he was either unwilling or afraid to redress this shameful abuse. And, although I subsequently made many attempts to pay the men their money without this abominable drawback, it was always without effect and at the risk of being denounced and sent away from the depôt.
The exertions which were made, during the long-continued detention of the English prisoners in France, for the relief of such among them as were in want, are known to every one. The sums so raised were contributed by benevolent individuals in London; to whom the collections made throughout the country, for the same charitable purpose, were also forwarded; and by them committed to the care of some of the most respectable persons in the depôt of Verdun, who had formed themselves into a committee for that effect. These gentlemen, who were themselves liberal contributors, dispensed the necessitous and sent to the different depôts such relief as the exigencies of each required. And sometimes, in the hope of more effectually relieving the sufferings of those confined in distant places, individuals from this chief depôt went to visit them and even took up their temporary or permanent abode among them.
At the time these charitable contributions were received at Givet, and the payment to each prisoner was small, though the whole amount was considerable, I went to the commandant and represented to him the charitable object of the money that was to be distributed; and said, I hoped he would not allow any deduction to be made from trifling sums, arising from such a source. He said, it would be altogether shameful, willingly gave me the permission to pay it, and granted my further request that a certain number of the prisoners should be permitted to come into the town once a week, to lay out the money more advantageously, in necessaries for themselves and their fellow prisoners. This was very joyful to the poor men; but, unfortunately, they could not contain their triumph and boasted, in not very measured terms, that they had at length overcome the marechal des logis. This was sufficient; the Commandant took this excuse for withdrawing the permission; and, before the next weekly pay-day arrived I received a message from him, that he had a particular reason for desiring that I would not again pay the money myself. I said, that in that case I would not pay it at all. And for a considerable time I resisted. But surrounded as I was with spies, I could not explain what I was doing to the men. And even if I had, the Commandant knew well, they were too impatient to receive their money, not to submit to the sacrifice, even of the half, if it were required, rather than wait.
He, also, had his hired friends, not only among the gens d’armes, but among the men themselves, who insinuated to them that it was all my fault that it was not paid. They sent in a specific message to the Commandant, that they were willing to pay the deduction as usual; and after resisting for, I think, two pay-days, I at length felt that it was wrong any longer to deprive the poor men of a charitable relief so necessary for them, and again submitted to this iniquitous tax.
The great difficulty of my situation arose from hence. I knew that if I were found, directly or indirectly, opposing, or interfering with the business of the depôt, otherwise than with the consent of the Commandant, and as I was able to work upon his moral feeling, or regard to his character, I should be immediately sent away. I was permitted to go there only as chaplain; and it was evident, from every one else, who could have done anything for the prisoners, having been sent away, that I should not be allowed to stay in any other capacity. Traps were constantly laid for me and I knew, by examples before my eyes, that if they could find any such interfering to allege against me, they would say to me, as they always did, that the thing I complained of was a shameful abuse. But they would have denounced me, as one of the Commandants afterwards did, as having done something, which they knew the minister of war, without any inquiry would punish by sending me away from the depôt. And as they would be very angry, and their accusation be of a kind which he would consider serious, an order would come down, be put in execution, perhaps in the middle of the night; and without any explanation, or, probably, any one knowing it, till the following morning, I should have been marched from brigade to brigade, to the fortress of Bitche, subject to join company with deserters and criminals, and tied, it might be, hand to hand with them. This might have been risked; but in what state would the poor fellows have been left? They would have been reduced to the same miserable condition in which I found them, with the additional oppression which would arise from the angry feeling left upon the minds of the officers who had charge of them. And thus, sound policy, and a conscientious regard to the object for which I was permitted to be at the depôt, the religious instruction and consolation of the prisoners, perfectly coincided. Under any circumstances, I could not have thought a disingenuous conduct right, and must have given up any advantage, or even usefulness, rather than resort to it. But I found that a plain and straightforward course enabled me to be more serviceable to the prisoners. And though, some times, I could not help making strong representations to the Commandant, I never worked indirectly or endeavoured to set the men’s minds against him. My general resource was persuasion, and a direct appeal to his conscience, and his amour propre, which was particularly his weak side. And with the aid of a very kind and influential French officer in the Engineers, who was always ready to assist me, and favour the prisoners, I was enabled to accomplish more, by this open conduct, than I could have done by means of a more indirect and inimical nature. But it will readily be conceived, that circumstanced as I was, this would often subject me to misrepresentation and render extreme circumspection necessary.
In the impossibility of knowing who were in the interest of the Commandant, even among the men themselves, I had but one resource, I suspected nobody and I trusted nobody. I never explained my views or intentions to any one and said nothing that required the least secrecy. At one time, therefore, the men, when they could not have what they wished, suspected all was not right; at another when they complained of tyranny and knavery, the agents and subalterns of the Commandant declared that I was at the bottom of it, and they would soon have me at the dungeons of Bitche; and, at a third, the Commandant himself would be influenced by his people, and suspect me of underhand dealing.
In the end, however, what was done spoke for itself. The men saw that every means in the power of prisoners, like themselves, were used to prevent them from being oppressed. The Commandant felt that my being there was a great check upon the rapacity and avarice of his people; and they, and often he himself, were excessively enraged. But the moral and religious feeling which was manifested among the men, rendered them so much more peaceful and sober, more satisfied, and even cheerful in their conduct, and so much more faithful to their word and engagements, that I really think he felt it a sort of personal security to himself and upon the whole, an advantage.
Thus exposed to many difficulties and personal dangers, as to the temporal wants of the poor men; in their spiritual concerns, and those immediately connected with them, I had abundant cause of thankfulness. On my first application for a place of worship, the Commandant expressed his readiness to do every thing in his power. But he had no place at his disposal larger than the ordinary sized room, which would not hold more than two hundred persons. This I obtained for the moment. But the Colonel-director of engineers was then with the army in Germany; and the grenier, the only place sufficiently large for the purpose, could only be obtained by a direct application to him. For the present, therefore, a room perhaps a little larger than the others, where was an oven for the purpose of baking bread for the barracks, was converted into a chapel. A small plain desk was made by one of the men, which served also for a pulpit; and the clerk made use of a common table and stool. What was wanting however in accommodation, was abundantly made up by the spirit which soon was manifested among the prisoners; and the Lord wrought powerfully among them. The place was crowded to excess, and the oven, which reached so near the top of the room, that the men could not sit upright upon it, was always covered with them, lying in a most painful position from want of room.
The Schools were also immediately established; and though the funds for all these objects were, at that early period of our captivity, but scantily, and with great difficulty obtained, we were yet able to carry on a system of education, which, for extent, usefulness, and the rapid progress made by those that were instructed, has perhaps seldom been equalled. It is indeed wonderful, at how small an expense, a number of persons, generally amounting to between four and five hundred, were taught to read, write, go through the highest rules in arithmetic, navigation in all its most difficult branches, construct charts and maps and work at the practical part of their profession, as far as it can be learned from the form of a vessel, which had been admirably rigged for that purpose. Yet the small sums given to those among them, who were capable of instructing their fellow prisoners, as masters or assistants, were very useful.
The immediate results arising from this employment of their time, were beneficial, in a degree, at least equal to the professional advantages, which they might hope to experience in their future prospects. While they were thus receiving instruction and edification, their thoughts were diverted from dwelling upon those misfortunes, which had the most pernicious effect and influence upon their minds, not only in a moral and religious point of view, but, often as it regarded their health and spirits….
… The hospital was another object of my immediate attention. It is remarkable that this abode of sickness and misery, was also the most abandoned portion of the depôt. In this respect, the remark which I have before made is completely borne out. And here, where it might have been hoped that the afflicting hand of God and the constant view of death, would have brought the most wicked to tremble at the thought of judgment, hardened impenitence kept pace with outward misery. And even after their wants were supplied and every comfort was promised for them, which affliction is susceptible of, the hospital continued to be, with some exceptions, much less under the influence of religious improve-ment, than any other part of the depôt.
My first object was to obtain for my countrymen a ward to themselves, separate from the prisoners of other nations. One of the prisoners had already been employed in the joint capacity of interpreter and nurse. He was by birth a Portuguese, but had been many years in the English navy and spoke English nearly as well as a native. He was however a person in whom I had not the least confidence, was hardened in all the callous and profligate practices of the French nurses and was evidently in the pay of the Commandant. For the same reason, however, I knew it would be impossible for me to displace him. And, after a vain attempt to do so, I endeavoured to make him as useful as possible; and contented myself with employing another person, and a third, as they were wanted, whom I found best suited to attend the sick and administer to their comforts.
It was my anxious wish to find a pious person, who was fit for this affair, and was willing to take the charge, in which there were so many opportunities of usefulness. And at length I succeeded in obtaining the appointment of one, who would at all times be ready to speak a word in season, to those who might be induced to hear. From this time the poor men were as comfortable as in an English hospital. Extreme cleanliness succeeded to the state of filth in which I had found them; and as wine, and many other things of a cordial, or a nutritious nature, were there abundant and very reasonable, they had even greater comforts than would have been provided for them at home. And the consequence was, that we had a smaller proportion of deaths, compared with the number of persons present, than is scarcely ever known.
A better spirit also began to be manifested among the men. The absence of the French nurses, hackneyed in every vice, and hardened amidst the most appalling scenes of sickness, misery, and death, contributed to prevent in some measure the abandoned carelessness and unconcern which had been shewn, when those who perhaps had less reason to expect it than themselves, were called before them, to give an account of the things done in the body. At least, they whose sufferings God had sanctified, were not interrupted, as they had been, by the riot and blasphemy of the wicked and impenitent.